Progress per action
1.1 Technologies and Applications State of the Art
In terms of this action an extensive literature search has been completed in order to identify the State of the Art Technologies & Applications of the following areas: Production Technologies of Biofuels, Biofuels emissions and Solar Hydrogen Production. This action is completed.
1.2 Public Private Partnership framework
Various examples of private public partnership schemes (PPP) in Greece were examined, with emphasis on waste management. Focus was given on the study of the existing legal framework regarding PPPs and the detailed procedures that need to be implemented towards a formulation of a PPP schemes. The activity was carried out by means of literature survey and internet search. This action is completed.
1.3 Good practices and know-how in waste management and biofuel production
The study (by means of literature survey and internet search) of international experience as regards the use of cooking oil for biofuels production is the focus of this action. Examples of initiatives taken abroad are examined in terms of their details of implementation, for example as regards logistics, incentives provided and technologies used. This action is completed.
1.4 Synthesis and identification of new markets and business opportunities
A literature survey was carried out in order to identify trends in the market biofuels and new business opportunities that may arise through exploitation of the project’s technical and socioeconomic activities. This action is completed.
2.1.1 Hydrotreating catalyst evaluation
A thorough study was performed where three commercial hydrotreating catalysts were evaluated as candidates for the conversion of WCO to biodiesel. In particular the three catalysts were examined in terms of their yield and quality of the produced biodiesel. Once the optimal hydrotreating catalyst was evaluated, optimal operating parameters were identified (temperature, H2/Oil ratio, Liquid Hourly Space Velocity) ensuring maximum conversion yields. Τhis study is complete and its results have been published in a scientific journal. This action is completed.
2.1.2 Used cooking oil and biofuel analysis
For this preliminary study a series of analytical tests on the waste cooking oil (WCO) feedstock and the produced 2nd generation biodiesel were performed. Furthermore, the stability of both feedstock and product during extended storage was studied, based on which it was verified that the produced biodiesel can be stored for an extensive period of time. This action is completed.
2.1.3 H2 production (preliminary studies)
Preliminary studies were conducted prior to the hydrogen production system design and installation including: a) Analysis, Mathematical Description and Evaluation of the Main Subsystems, b) Description of the Power Management Strategy, c) Evaluation of the Operating Policy based on Case Studies and d) Results of the Simulated Case Studies. This action is completed.
2.2.1 Hydrotreating unit (process design and implementation)
In order to proceed with the production step the existing hydrotreating unit has to be upgraded. So far the upgrading activities of the unit include the installation of a new pump, the upgrade of the scrubber system, the addition of two new heated lines and the addition of a new gas. The upgrade includes both the process instrumentation diagram (PID), the electrical schematics of the unit and the existing SCADA system for controlling the unit. The hydrotreating unit upgrade further includes the installation of a fractionator system. The progress of this activity includes the unit assembly, the creation of PID diagrams and the purchase of the pc for the control of the system. This action is completed.
The chemical part of the solar hydrogen has been completed. Electrical construction and Control system construction have been completed. The unit construction is also completed. A housing for the hydrogen compressor has been completed. The hydrogen production has started manually, while full automation is underway. This action is completed.
2.3.1 Used cooking oil collecting truck
A semi-truck has been modified for the transportation of used cooking oil by the Municipality of Thessaloniki. This truck enables the collection of waste cooking oil from the 23 restaurants defined as collection points for this project. This action is completed.
2.3.2 Garbage truck
A garbage truck was purchased via the procedure and regulations of the Municipality of Thessaloniki. The garbage truck is currently employed for the collection of recycle items utilizing conventional diesel fuel. In May 2012 the garbage truck will be filled with the new biodiesel-2G demonstrating the new innovative technology. This action is completed.
3.1 Status of waste management in Thessaloniki as regards primary fuels for biofuels generation
The collection and processing of relevant background material for waste management in Thessaloniki have been completed and a report was produced summarizing the waste management status in the region of Thessaloniki (deliverable D3.1). This action is completed.
3.2 Consulting with local actors and stakeholders
The consultation with local actors and stakeholders was initiated early in the project and is ongoing as new project results are produced. The first discussions took place during the initial phases of the project and at the project workshop presented in October 2010, while several meetings with local actors and stakeholders followed. This action is associated with deliverable D3.2 (revised) and is completed.
3.3 Networking and discussion on Public Private Partnership ventures
An initial strategic plan for the development of public private partnerships (PPP) was developed and discussed within the consortium. The project beneficiaries have initiated PPP discussions during the consortium meetings and other technical meetings. This action is associated with deliverable D3.3 (revised) and is completed.
4.1 Used cooking oil collection and transportation
The Association of Restaurant Owners of Thessaloniki has decided on the participation of 23 restaurants in the project (initially 11 and later added 12 more). These restaurants are located in various popular areas of the city and are committed in providing the necessary quantity of Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) to fulfill the tasks of the project. The Municipality of Thessaloniki has established a procedure for collecting the used cooking oil from the 23 restaurants at regular intervals. In October 2011 a total quantity of 3000 lit of WCO were collected and delivered to CERTH. This action is completed.
4.2 Hydrotreating used cooking oil
The catalytic hydrotreatment of used cooking oil was initiated in the 2nd quarter of 2010 and was completed in May 2012 utilizing the pilot hydroprocessing unit of CERTH. In total 2000 liters of the new biodiesel-2G were produced, as required for the pilot testing in diesel-engines (see Action 5.1) and the on-road testing in the garbage truck (see Action 5.2). This action is completed
4.3 Solar hydrogen production
After the design and construction of the solar hydrogen production unit (see Action 2.2.2) the production was initiated in April 2011. Since then hydrogen is produced from solar energy on a daily basis. The system works unattended producing currently at least a bottle per shiny day. The system automation is being fine-tuned and operation is improved constantly as experience is gained through operation. This action is completed.
5.1 Pilot Testing
Regarding the pilot-testing of the new biofuel, all experiments both on the diesel passenger car as well as on the diesel engine have been fully completed. All experimental data have been fully analysed in order to evaluate the actual impact of the new biodiesel on emissions and fuel consumption. In addition, the study team developed a new Matlab code in order to investigate the impact of the new biofuel on the evolution of the in-cylinder pressure and on the evolution of the heat release rate. The data from the engine tests combined with the combustion analysis have provided a useful input in order to explain the observed phenomena that took place during the vehicle tests. This action is completed.
5.2 On-road Testing
The on-road testing of the new biodiesel-2G fuel was performed in a garbage truck of the Municipality of Thessaloniki which had no engine modifications. The on-road testing involved the evaluation of the new fuel on the garbage truck covering over 10,000km to determine the fuel consumption, engine performance and emissions utilizing the new fuel. The testing fuel consisted of 50% biodiesel-2G and 50% conventional fossil diesel. Besides the aforementioned testing with the new fuel, the on-road testing also involved a comparative evaluation of the garbage truck operation with the conventional diesel fuel available in the market, in order to evaluate the benefits of the utilization of the new fuel. This action is completed.
6.1 Sustainability Analysis
This action aims to evaluate the carbon foot-print and green house gas emissions of the new fuel, utilizing actual experimental data from its production and utilization in car engines (Action 5.1 and 5.2). The sustainability analysis also involves the comparison of the estimated data with related literature data. The sustainability analysis of both the production process of the new fuel (well-to-tank) and the analysis for the remaining emissions from its utilization in car engines (well-to-wheel) have been estimated. This action is completed.
7.1 Project Website
The website was launched in February 2010 under the URL: www.biofuels2g.gr. It is a bilingual (English-Greek) website developed to provide information to the public on the BIOFUELS-2G project including:
General project description
Progress of project activities
List of actions (updated every 3 months)
Reports, presentations and publications related to the project
Photos organized in four different albums
Visitors’ website meter
This action is completed.
7.2 Dissemination Plan & General Dissemination
Several actions have been done towards the dissemination of the project including:
Development of the project logo
Development of the project website (www.biofuels2g.gr)
Flags with the logos of LIFE Programme and BIOFUELS-2G project with the indication “I participate in the Waste Cooking Oil Exploitation”, for the network of restaurants participating in the project
This action is completed.
7.3 Project Dissemination events & publications
This action includes two dissemination events: The international workshop on Renewable Hydrogen Economy and Production entitled “Hydrogen for LIFE”, which was held successfully on 24th of May 2012 and the international conference “Biofuels for Sustainable Development of Southern Europe (Bio4SuD)”, was held on 19-20 November, 2012. Regarding the Bio4SuD conference, the call for abstracts is currently open and the first participations have already been submitted. One public workshop on Exploitation Technologies of Waste Cooking Oil was also held in CERTH on the 15th of October 2010.
Besides the dissemination events the project is being disseminated by:
5000 leaflets in Greek that promote used cooking oil recycling and will be distributed by the participating restaurants
80 posters (to be placed in restaurants, public buildings and other sites related to the project beneficiaries)
2300 leaflets in English & Greek
3000 Invitations to “Hydrogen for LIFE” workshop
5 technical publications in scientific journals
Participation in technical conferences and associated publications (9) in their proceedings and presentations in general conferences / meetings (17)
Presentation of the project to more than 148 web releases
Presentation of the objectives of the project to the press, radio and TV
Presentation of the project to society groups (children, school students, associations etc)
Presentation of the project to local environmental events
7.4 Exploitation Plan
This action is completed. The Exploitation Plan is available here.
7.5 After-LIFE Communication Plan
This action completed. The After-LIFE Communication Plan is available here.
8.1 Coordination and quality management
The project Management Structure has been defined. Furthermore, the quality control guidelines regarding the details of the project execution have been studied, agreed on and documented. This action is completed.
8.2 Project meetings
The project management team has agreed in having biweekly internal meetings in order to monitor the progress of the technical and financial aspects of the project. Furthermore more seven formal meetings among the beneficiaries of the project have taken place, as envisioned. This action is completed.
8.3 Monitoring, Reporting & Auditing
The project management team has decided that in order to monitor effectively both technical and financial aspects of the project it will request: a) a technical status for every action by each beneficiary responsible every month and b) all financial documents (timesheets, receipts, invoices, etc.) every 3 months. As far as reporting, four reports are envisioned (1 inception report, 2 progress reports and 1 final report). The inception report was submitted to the Commission in the end of June 2010 and was accepted, the mid-term report in the end of March 2011, a progress report in the end of December 2011 and the final report in the end of March 2013. This action is completed.
8.4 Collaboration with similar projects
Although similar/complementary projects have already been identified through the literature search that has taken place in terms of Action 1.1 “Technologies and Applications State of the Art”, an additional number of projects / initiatives have been identified though further search among the recent Life and the Intelligent Energy Projects. A list of these projects describing their objectives and the contact details of their representatives has been formed and initiatives have been carried out to approach them via e-mails. Up to now two collaborations have been accomplished, with the following similar projects:
- The Life Project “ENERGY WASTE-Energy Exploitation of Non-Recyclable Urban Waste in a Sustainable waste to Energy Market” and
- The National project “Sustain Diesel-Sustainability optimization of the diesel production technology”.
- The Intelligent energy Project “Energy for Mayors”.
This action is associated with deliverables D8.2 and D8.3 and is completed.